Review on Microbial remediation of Heavy metals from    E-waste

Pradeepa. R1* Senthil kumar. P1 and Kavitha K.K2

 

1*&1 Research scholar, Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur- 613010

2Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur- 613010

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed/E-Mail: pradeepabt@gmail.com

Received: Mar 2017 / Accepted:  Mar 2017/ Published: Mar 2017

ABSTRACT: E-waste is an end of the life span of electric or electronic appliances which contain the complex heavy metals. It is causing severe health concerns for millions of people around the world, mostly in the developing nations of India, Africa, Europe, etc. More of these wastes are ending up in dumping yards and recycling centers, cause a new challenge to the environment. In general electronic gadgets are intended to make our lives happier and simpler, but their toxicity, removal and recycling becomes a health horrendous. Many research papers have been reported on microbial remediation of heavy metals present in E-waste. The pioneer work was reported on 1998, bio-dissolution of spent nickel batteries using Thiobacillus ferroxidans, which is the first step to recycle and discarded batteries by using microbes as eco-friendly method.  This review paper provides an insight in to the bioremediation of heavy metals from E-waste by potential microorganisms, in an eco-friendly way and provide pathway for current researchers.

Keywords: E-waste, Bio remediation, Heavy metals and minerals.

INTRODUCTION

The revolution brought by information and communication in twentieth century brought enormous changes in the way we organize our lives, our economies, industries and institutions (Devendra S Verma, 2014). In most of the developing and under-developed countries, e-waste is dumped directly into the soil without any treatment; often due to weak environmental regulations and financial problems. For profitable recovery of materials and sustainable environment, the efficient recycling of electronic waste is very necessary, and is still regarded as a major challenge for today’s society (Shubham Gupta, 2014).

According to Centre of Science and Environment’s latest reports, every year our country is producing 3, 50,000 tonnes of e-waste, 5,0000 tonnes of electronic waste is imported but only 19000 tonnes is rejected. Out of total e-waste 10 states contribute about 70% of e-waste, leading states are- Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.  E-waste is highly complex to handle due to its composition. It is made up of multiple components some of which contain toxic substances that have an adverse impact on human health and environment if not handled properly and mixed with municipal waste.

Electronic wastes can cause widespread environmental damage due to the use of toxic materials in the manufacture of electronic goods (Mehra, 2004). Hazardous materials in one form or the other are present in such wastes primarily consisting of electronic equipment. Even though it is hardly known, E-waste contains toxic substances such as Lead and Cadmium in circuit boards, lead oxide and Cadmium in monitor Cathode Ray Tubes , cables and polyvinyl chloride cable insulation that releases highly toxic dioxins and furans when burned to recover Copper from the wires.

All electronic equipment contains printed circuit boards which are dangerous because of their content of lead. The microorganisms for remediation of complex or co-contaminated system, they must possess tolerance and detoxification abilities towards different types of pollutants. These properties help them prolong and bioremediation in complex and mixed polluted systems like e-waste.

Microbes possessing such novel properties can be either isolated from natural contaminated sources (soil contaminated with e-waste or leachate from e-waste landfill sites), or obtained through engineering processes. Such microbes, individually or as consortia, can be used for decontamination of e-waste. Certain microorganisms with their unique tolerance mechanisms are able to grow and degrade or transform toxicants into nontoxic forms. (Amrik Bhattacharya, 2016).

 

Categories of E-waste

It can be categories on the basis of hazardous and non- hazardous waste and more than one thousands e- waste comes under this category (Wath et al., 2010). According to the European Union electrical and electronic equipment available on the market have divided e-waste types into ten categories such as Large household Appliances, Small household appliances, IT and telecommunications ,Equipment, Consumer equipment, Light equipment, Electrical and electronic tools, Toys, leisure, and sports, Equipment, Medical devices, Monitoring and control Instruments, Automatic dispensers.

 

Techniques used to handle E-waste

There are basically four ways in which e-waste has been treated till date. But none has been found to be fully satisfactory. The first and most common one has been storing e-wastes in landfills, but it is replete with all the dangers of leaching.  The hazardous effects are worse in the older or less stringently maintained landfills or dumpsites. The second method commonly used has been to incinerate or burn the goods, but this process releases heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury into the atmosphere. The third and the fourth methods are reusing and recycling of E-wastes. They have been preferable because they increase the lifespan of the products and therefore imply less waste over time. These are the four different and common method used to handle the waste all over the world. Each method has its own drawbacks and limitations. (Bikashdev Chhura, et al., 2015). To facilitate take the edge off e-waste problems, there are investigations in term of the quantity, character and potential environmental and human health impacts of e-waste and broad research into e-waste management.

 

              Microbial Remediation of Heavy metals present in E-waste

S.No

Metals

Source of Metals Studied

Microorganism

Bioremediation Process/Methods

Reference

1.

Cu

Cu- rich e-waste

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

Aspergillus niger

Bioleaching

Saidan and M.Valix,  2006

2.

Cu

Waste Printed circuit board (PCB)

Bacterial consortium enriched from natural acid mine drainge

Bioleachning

Yun Xiang,  et al., 2010

3.

Au, Ag

PCB

-

Manual

Chatterjee, et al., 2009

4.

Cr, Pb, Cu

Solid & Liquid Waste

Staphylococcus saprophyticus,

Biosorption

Ashok kumar, et al., 2011

5.

Ni

PCB

mesophilic chemolititrophic bacterial cul­ture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans

Bioleaching

Anna Mrazikova, 2014

6.

Au

E waste

Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

and Escherichia coli.

Bioleaching

Chang jin Liang, et al., 2011

7.

Cu, Al, Zn

 PCB

Mixed culcture of Acidophilic Bacteria

Bioleachning

Nengwu Zhu, et al., 2011

8.

Cu, Ni, Al, Zn

Electronic scrap

 

 

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

Bioleaching

Willner, et al., 2013 and

 Kavitha, 2014.

9.

Cu, Ni, Al, Zn

Electronic scrap

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

Bioleaching

Brandl, et al., 2001

10.

Cu, Ni, Sn, Pb, Zn, Al

Electronic scrap

Aspergillus niger

Penicillium simplicissimum

Bioleaching

Brandl, et al., 2001

11.

Cu

PCB

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

Bioleaching

Tao yang, et al., 2009

12.

Cu

Printed wire boards

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

A. ferroxidans + A. thiooxidans

Bioleaching

Jingwei wang et al., 2009

13.

Ni, Cu, Al, Zn, Pb, Sn

Electronic scrap

Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans

Bioleaching

Ilyas, et al., 2007

14.

Cu, Al, Zn, Ni

Electronic scrap

Thermosulfidooxidans sulfobacillus + Thermoplasma acidophilum

Column Bioleaching

Ilyas, et al., 2010

15.

Au

Printed electronic circuits

Chromobacterium violaceum

Bioleaching

Faramarzi, et al 2004

16.

Li, Co

Lithium batteries

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

Bioleaching

Joanna willner, 2013

17.

Li, Co

Lithium batteries

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

Bacterial leaching

Debaraj Mishra, et al., 2008

18.

Ag, Au, Pt

Jewellery waste, automobile catalytic converter, electronic scrap

Chromobacterium violaceum,  Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida

Biomobilization

Brandl, et al., 2008

19.

Ni,Co, Cr &Mn

Ores

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

Biomining

Barrie Johnson, et al., 2013

20.

Zn, Ni, Pb

PCB

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

 

Bioleaching

Joanna willner, 2012

21.

Ni, Cd

Spent Ni - Cd batteries:

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

Bioleaching

O.Velgosova, , et al., 2012 and O.Velgosova, et al., 2014

22.

Cu, Au, Zn, Fe

E  waste

Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas

fluorescens

 

Bioleaching

Jatindra Kumar Pradhan, et al.,  2012

23.

Au, Cu, Ni

Cellular phone PCBs

and Computer gold finger motherboards

Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7,

Bioleaching

Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias, et al., 2014

24.

Cu, Zn, Ni

PCB

Acidiphilium acidophilum

 

Bioleaching

 Rivero Hudec, et al., 2009

25.

Cu, Cd, Pb

Electroplating industrial

effluent samples

Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. Micrococcus sp.

Biosorption

 Johncy Rani, et al., 2010

 

26.

Ni, Au, Cu

Nickel powder, PCB scrap

C. violaceum, P. fluorescens, B. megaterium

Microbial mobilization

Mohammad  Faramarzia, et al., 2004

27.

Pb, As, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Mn

Mine Waste Disposal Sites

Sulfobacillus sp.

Sulfidobacillus sp.

Acetobacter acidophilum

Alcaligenes entrophus

Pseudomonas putida

Biosorption

 Petrisor, et al., 2002

28.

Cd

 

E  waste

Pseudomonas aeruginosa JN102340

Biosorption

 Kumar, 2014

 

29.

Pb

E  waste

Aspergillus fumigatus

Biosorption

Rajesh kumar Ramasamy, et al., 2011

30.

Cd

 

E  waste

Aspergillus sp.

Biosorption

Ramasamy Rajesh Kumar, et al., 2012

 

31.

Mn

E  waste

Helminthosporium solani

Biosorption

Savitha, et al., 2010

32.

Ni , Cd

Bio-dissolution of spent Nickel-Cadmium batteries

At. ferrooxidans

 

Bioleaching

Cerruti, et al., 1998

33.

Ni , Cd

Spent Nickel-Cadmium batteries

Indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli

 

Bioleaching

Zhu et al , 2003

 

34.

Ni , Cd

Spent  Ni-Cd battery

 

At. ferrooxidans, & At. thiooxidans

 

Bioleaching

O. Velgosova, et al.,  2010

35.

Cu

PCB of waste Computer

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans

 

Bioleaching

 Choi, et al.,  2004

36.

Cu, Pb, Zn

Printed wire boards

Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans,+ Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

 

Bioleaching

Wang, et al., 2009

37.

Cu, Ni, Zn

PCB

Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

Bioleaching

Liang, et al., 2010

38.

Ag

Waste photographic films

Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

Enzymatic Method

Nakiboglu, et al., 2001

39.

Ag

Waste X-ray film

Conidiobolus

coronatus

Enzymatic Method

Shankar, et al., 2010

40.

Ag

X-ray films

Bacillus sphaericus

Enzymatic Method

Singh, et al., 1999

41.

Ag

Lith Film

 

Bacillus sp. B21–2

Enzymatic Method

Masui, et al.,2004

42.

Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, and Zn

Dumping municipal soil area

Pseudomonas spp. Bacillus spp

Resistance

Ersoy Sevgi, et al., 2009

43.

Cd

Contaminated site

Pseudomonas aeruginosa S22

Resistance

El-Sayed, et al.,2008

44.

Uranium

Mine waste

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biosorption

Michael Z. and Hu,et al.,1996

45.

Hg, Pb, Ag, ZN, Cu,

Industry waste

Bacillus species

Bioaccumulation

Meghraj Hookoom, et al., 2013

46.

Ar, Pb, Cd

E waste

A.Thioxidans, Micrococcus roseus, T. ferrooxidans, Aspergillus fumigates, A. niger

Bioleaching

Stephen , Macnaughtont, 1999,and Shuchi Patel et al., 2014

47.

Cr, Ur, Cd, Pb 

Industrial waste

Bacillus sphaericus, Myxococcus Xanthus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptoverticillium

Cinnamoneum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Biosorption

Hu, et al., 1996, Atkinson, et al., 1998;  Ahalya et al., 2003 and Shuchi Patel etal, 2014

48.

Cr, Ur, Pb

Heavy metal presenting waste

Bacillus circulans ,

Bacillus megaterium,

Deinococcus radiodurans ,

Micrococcus luteus,

Aspergillus niger,

Monodictys pelagic

 

Bioaccumulation

Demirba , 2001;  Srinath, et al., 2002,  Malik, 2004; Juwarkar, Yadav, 2010 and  Shuchi Patel, et al., 2014

49.

Ur, Cr, Cd

Heavy metal presenting waste

Anaeromyxobacter sp.  

Clostridium sphenoides

Halomonas sp.

Serratia sp.

Fusarium oxysporum

Rhizopus oryzae

Biotransformation

Lovley and Coates, 1997; Francis, 1998; Malik, 2004 and Shuchi Patel, et al., 2014

50.

Cu

Electronic Waste

Acidithiobacillus bacteria

Bioleaching

 Saidan, et al., 2012

51.

Au

Cellular phone Printed circuit board

A. niger MXPE6 and A. niger MX7

Bioleaching

Madrigal-Arias, 2015

52.

Cu

Printed circuit board

S. thermosulfidooxidans

Bioleaching

Rodrigues, et al.,  2015

53.

Ni, Cu, Al, Zn

Electronic scrap

S. thermosulfidooxidans and acidophilic heterotrophy (code A1TSB)

Bio solubilization

Tang, et al., 2016

54.

Pb

E waste landfill

Bacillus licheniformis

Biosorption

Gayatri, et al., 2017

Ar-Arsenic,Pb- Lead, Cd-Cadmium,Cr- Chromium, U-Uranium, Ni- Nickel, Cu-Copper, Al-Alumnium, Zn-Znic,  Sn-, Co-cobalt, Mn-Manganese, Ag-Silver, Fe-Ferrous, Pt-Platinum, Li-Lithium, Au- Gold

 

CONCLUSION

E-Waste containing toxic metals which need to be remediated efficiently from contaminated surroundings.  To reduce the toxic metals effect on environment and living beings. Biological methods one of the potential methods to minimize the toxicity associated with e-waste contaminants in sustainable way. So we need to spread the awareness of proper handling of E-waste such as reduce, reuse and safe recycle process.

 

 

 

 

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How to cite this article
Pradeepa, R., Senthil kumar, P., & Kavitha, K. K. (2017). Review on Microbial remediation of Heavy metals from E-waste. Int. J. Agr. Life. Sci, 3(1), 123-
130. doi: 10.22573/spg.ijals.017.s12200076.

                                           

 

 

 

 

 

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

“The authors declare no conflict of interest”.

                 

© 2017 by the authors; licensee SKY FOX Publishing Group, Tamilnadu, India. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).