Nutrition Profile on Grape Juice – A Review

Sara Janitha * and K.Singaravadivel**

*Indian Institute of crop processing technology, Thanjavur 613005; E-Mails:

**Indian Institute of crop processing technology, Thanjavur 613005; E-Mails:

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail:

Received: Oct 2015 / Accepted:  Nov 2015/ Published: Dec 2015

Abstract: Vitis vinifera (grapes) is a well-known tropical fruit which has been used in India since 1300 AD. Grape juice is well relished by all age groups of the society. It was reported that consumption of grape juice at moderate level helps in prevention of aging related diseases. The aim of this review, a summary of the nutrient content which is available in grape juice and to obtain a further understanding of the reported beneficial health effects of the naturally occurring nutrient content in the grape juice. It has been systematically studied for various biological activities with particular reference to clinical effects. Several other potential beneficial properties in grape juice like flavonoids, polyphenols, antioxidants, anthocyanins, and resveratrol have since been ascertained. We review the potential clinical applications of these fascinating natural substances.

Keyword: Grape juice, antioxidants, flavonoids, poly phenols, resveratrol



Grapes (Vitis Vinifera) are natural sources which may promote generally health by providing a mix of plant nutrients (19).  They are considered as “the queen of fruits,” since centuries. These little berries are the warehouse of abundant health promoting phyto-nutrients such as poly-phenolic antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals.

Each berry features semi-translucent flesh encased in a smooth, thin skin in structure. Some of them contain edible seeds, while others are seedless. The presence of poly-phenolic pigments in them are responsible for the colour.

Fig 1 Grapes variety

Red or purple berries contain more of anthocyanins while white-green berries contain more tannins, especially, catechin. Fascinatingly, these antioxidant compounds are heavily concentrated on the skin and seeds.

The three major species of grapes grown around the world are; European (Vitis vinifera), North American (Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia), and French hybrids.

a)       Some of popular green cultivars include Thompson seedless, sugarone, and calmeria.

b)       Red varieties are emperor, red globe, cardinal, and flame seedless.

c)        Concord and zinfandel are some of flavorful blue-black cultivars.

Commercially, many cultivars of grapes are grown for different purposes either can be eaten as table fruit, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana) or used in wine production.

The below mentioned table shows the deep analysis of grape nutrients:
Grapes, red or green (European type, Thompson seedless), Nutritive Value per 100 g, 




Principle Nutrient value Percentage of RDA
Energy 69 kcal 3.5%
Carbohydrates 18 g 14%
Protein 0.72 g 1%
Total fat 0.16 g 0.5 %
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Dietary fiber 0.9 g 2%
Folates 2 ug 0.5%
Niacin 0.188 mg 1%
Pantothenic acid 0.050 mg 1%
Pyridoxine 0.086 mg 7.5%
Riboflavin 0.070 mg 5%
Thiamine 0.069 mg 6%
Vitamin A 66 IU 3%
Vitamin C 10.8 mg 18%
Vitamin E 0.19 mg 1%
Vitamin K 14.6 ug 12%
Sodium 0 mg 1%
Potassium 191 mg 4%
Calcium 10 mg 1%
Copper 0.127 mg 14%
Iron 0.36 mg 4.5%
Magnesium 7 mg 2%
Manganese 0.071 mg 3%
Zinc 0.07 mg 0.5%
Carotene – 1 ug
Carotene – 39 ug
Crypto-xanthin 0 ug
Lutein -zeaxanthin 72 ug
Lutein -zeaxanthin 72 ug

ORAC Value 3,277 (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)


                          Fig 2: Flow Chart of Phytonutrients

Fruit beverages are well appreciated by all age groups of the society. Grape juice is considered as a extraordinary beverage, due to its rich constituents with nutritional and bioactive effects (33). It was reported that consumption of grape products at moderate level helps in prevention of aging related diseases (13).

Many researchers have recommended that there is a link between the consumption of bioactive compounds and the prevention of some diseases. The data’s for such an association has increased interest in the behavior of bioactive compounds during various industrial processes. Thus, in addition to increasing nutritional and pharmacological interest in phenolic compounds, attention to technological aspects of food production has also been growing (6)(11).


Grape juice contains largely of water (81-86%), with a high concentration of the sugar glucose and fructose. It presents an high acidity due to the presence of tartaric acid, malic and citric acid. These acids ensure a low pH value, guaranteeing equilibrium between acidic and sweet tastes. Regarding its mineral elements, a high potassium value and low sodium value are found (30). Among the bioactive compounds present in grape juice, phenolic constituents are of great importance because their characteristics are directly or indirectly related to the quality of the juice and affect its color and astringency (10).

The potential health benefits of grape juice were measured in many research studies. Grape juice and grape products have many neutraceutical properties like antioxidants, anti –clotting carcinostatic and anti-inflammatory agents etc (20). In a study it is reported that the consumption of grape juice resulted 75% reduction in risk factors associated with Alzheimer’s disease (4).



A large body of research supports the idea that consumption of grape juice, as part of a produce rich diet can positively impact health. Polyphenols which give grapes their vibrant colour that naturally function as anti- oxidants and help promote overall health (36).  The grape juice helps manage the effect of health of LDL cholesterol. In a study 15 healthy adults are asked to drink grape juice (10 ml/kg/d) each day for two weeks. They found that the rate of LDL oxidation was significantly reduced after grape juice consumption (28). Research suggests that phyto nutrients like those found in grapes can contribute the heart health in certain populations by promoting health arteries (40).

While more research is in process to uncover the natural goodness and health benefits of grapes. Current research is pointing to the heart health benefits such as the grape juice

1)        May help support flexible arteries to promote health blood flow (1).

2)        May help manage the effects of bad cholesterol to keep arteries clear of excess plaque buildup in certain populations (38).

3)        May have an anti- clotting effect similar to red wine (8).

4)        May play a role in healthy blood pressure (29).

Grape juice is a rich source of flavonoids and polyphenols such as catechin, quercetins, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and also non-flavonoid poly phenols like resveratrol which all are active antioxidants effective in preventing or reversing the destructive effects of old age on the behavior and function of the brain (39).



Grapes which are natural sources of plant nutrients can help support healthy life styles. It provides an excellent source of manganese, vitamin K and also contributes to thiamin (vitamin B1), vitamin B6, potassium and vitamin C (36).

The plant nutrients or phytonutrients within the grape include


polyphenols such as anthocyanins, catechin, epicatechin and quercetin which are flavonoids (25) and potentially resveratrol which is a stilbene.



This subgroup of phytonutrients is found in a variety of foods, including grapes and grape juice. They are often concentrated in the skin of fruits and act as a protector from pathogens, parasites and predators. Research is currently investigating whether these plant- based nutrients can also protect the health of humans (19).



Flavonoids are a large family of secondary compounds synthesized by plants and collectively known as vitamin P or citrin. They are found in skin and seed of the grapes (9). Flavonoids are determined to have many subclasses such as flavonols, flavones, flavonones, flavon -3-ols, anthocyanidins. Preliminary research indicates the potential role in the human health

a)        May lower risk for cardiovascular disease (37).

b)       May reduce risk of several types of cancer (24).

c)        May promote lung health and protect against asthma (43).


                                         Fig 3 Structural formula of flavonoids


A major sub-class of flavonoids, they are typically found glycosylated (linked to a sugar) in nature and they are responsible for the red, purple or blue colour of fruits (26).


These two related compounds are the subclass of flavonoids which are commonly found in the beverages. They are the building block of the proanthocyanidins (3).


Resveratrol (trans-3, 4, 5-trihydroxystibene) is a phytopolyphenol present in skins and seeds of the grapes. Recent studies indicate that it can block the process of multistep carcinogenesis namely tumour initiation, promotion and progression.




Grape antioxidants have drawn an increased attention for their potential anticancer effects. A number of studies suggest that the high consumption of grape components could be associated with the reduced risk of certain cancers such as breast cancer and colon cancer (23) (14). The anti cancer effects of grape antioxidants have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo models (12). Grape antioxidants have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells (2). Considering the diversity of grape antioxidants, it is very likely that these compounds are to exert potential anticancer activity by acting on multiple cellar events associated with tumor initiation, promotion, progression (27). They act as free radicals scavengers and chelating agents helps to reduce physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS is known as an important mediator of apoptosis. Since initiation and regulation of apoptosis is associated with modification in the oxidative environment (15).



Grape antioxidants also exert anti-inflammatory activity which is believed to be associated with their chemo preventive effects (35). Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase play an important role as inflammatory mediator. They are involved in the release of arachidonic acid, which is a starting point for a general inflammatory response. Neutrophils containing lipoxygenase create chemotactic compounds from arachidonic acid. They also provoke the release of cytokines. Selected phenolic compounds were shown to inhibit both the cyclo oxygenase and 5 lipoxygenase pathway (7)(18). This inhibition reduces the release of arachidonic acid (45). Quercetin, a grape flavonoids, in particular inhibits both cyclo oxygenase and lipoxygenase activities, thus diminishing the formation of these inflammatory metabolites. But the exact mechanism by which flavonoids inhibit the enzymes is not clear (34)(16).



One major group of the bioactive components present in grape juice is phenolic antioxidant typically including anthocyanins, catechin, resveratrol, phenolic acids and procyanidins (32). Anti oxidant activities of grape phenolic compounds have been extensively investigated in various studies and demonstrated in various model systems such as protecting low- density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation is brought about by Cu2+  and oxygen centered radical- generating AAPH in vitro systems. Body cells and tissues are continuously threatened by the damage caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species which are produced during normal oxygen metabolism (5). This cellular damage can be protected by the antioxidant defense mechanism of the body include enzymes such as super-oxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.





Flavonols which is a sub class of flavonoids are particularly anti thrombotic because they directly scavenge free radicals, there by maintaining proper concentrations of endothelial prostacyclin and nitric oxide (22). The main anti-aggregatory effect of flavonoids is thought to be by inhibition of thromboxane Aformation (17). In vitro studies showed that flavonoids bind to platelet membranes and may therefore have an accumulative effect over time (41).



Resveratrol which is present in grape and its product can also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in human. The molecular mechanisms of resveratrol in chemoprevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease are interesting and under investigation. It may act as a reactive oxygen species scavenger to suppress tumor development (45).Resveratrol can also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in man. The molecular mechanisms of resveratrol in chemoprevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease are interesting and under intensive investigation. Resveratrol was found to strongly inhibit nitric oxide (NO) generation in activated macrophages, as measured by the amount of nitrite released into the culture medium, and resveratrol strongly reduced the amount of cytosolic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein. The activation of nuclear factor kB (NFkB) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was inhibited by resveratrol. The phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor inhibitor kBa (IkBa) were inhibited by resveratrol simultaneously. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are regarded as having carcinogenic potential and have been associated with tumor promotion. Resveratrol may act as a reactive oxygen species scavenger to suppress tumor development. In addition, resveratrol may block multistep carcinogenesis through mitotic signal transduction blockade. Reactive oxygen species are pivotal factors in the genesis of heart disease. Meanwhile, efficient endogenous antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), and catalase, are present in tissues. A fine balance between reactive oxygen species and endogenous antioxidants is believed to exist. Any disturbance of this balance in favor of reactive oxygen species causes an increase in oxidative stress and initiates subcellular changes, leading to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The experimental results indicate that exogenous antioxidant resveratrol is of value in hemopreventing the development of heart disease (44).



The review of the nutrient content and potential properties of grape juice and grape products emphasize the society to utilize them to lead a life style disease free life. And it is too early to make recommendation on daily intake for the effective management of many diseases. The potential use of grape nutrients in preventive cardio vascular diseases and the investigation in that exciting field is warranted. The grape juice has been marketed in few Indian fruit beverages limited as grape Ready to serve (RTS), grape nectar etc., and that should have of enough encouragement among scientists in exploring more information about the grape products in order to exploit its commercial potential. An extensive research and development work should be undertaken for the economic and value added product utilization.



The authors are grateful to Dr. K. Singaravadivel, Director, Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur for providing all the facilities, encouragement and support used to carry out the work.



1)        Anselm E, Chataigneau M, Ndiaye M, Chataigneau T and Schini-Kerth VB. Grape juice causes endothelium-dependent relaxation via a redox-sensitive Src- and Akt-dependent activation of eNOS. Cardiovasc Res. 2007. 73(2):404-413.

2)        B. Aggarwal, A. Bhardwaj, R. S. Aggarwal, N. P. Seeram, S. Shishodia, and Y. Takada, “Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Research, , 2004. vol. 24, no. 5 A, pp. 2783–2840

3)        A M J Respir Crit Care Med. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and intake of catechins, flavonols, and flavones: the MORGEN Study Jul 1 2001;164(1):61-4.


4)        Consumption of juices by Americans and Japanese vanderbilt University 2006


5)        De Groot H. Reactive oxygen species in tissue injury. Hepatogastroenterology 1994;41:328–32.


6)        Dubick, M. A. and Omaye, S. T.  Modification of atherogenesis and heart disease by grape wine and tea polyphenols.  In: Nutraceuticals Handbook, (Wildman, R., Ed.) CRC press, 2001 pp. 235-260,.


7)        Ferrandiz ML, Alcaraz MJ. Anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by flavonoids. Agents Actions1991;32:283–8.

8)        Folts JD. Antithrombotic potential of grape juice and red wine for preventing heart attacks. Pharmaceutical Biology. 1998. 36(Suppl. 1):21-27.

9)        Freedman JE, Parker C, 3rd, Li L, et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation. 2001. 103(23):2792-2798.


10)     Girard, B., Mazza, G., 1998. Produtos Funcionales derivados de lãs uvas y de los cítricos. Cap 5. In: Mazza, G., Acribia, S.A. (Eds.), Alimentos Funcionales: aspectos bioquímicos e de procesado. Zaragoza, Espana, pp. 141–182.

11)     H. Kim, P. Hall, M. Smith et al., “Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent,” Journal of Nutrition, 2004, vol. 134, no. 12, pp. 3445S–3452S.

12)     Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, van de Putte B (1993b) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines and fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 41:1242-1246


13)     Iriti M, Faoro F (2009) Health-promoting effects of grape bioactive phytochemicals. Complementary and Alternative Therapies and the Aging Population. 445-474

14)     J. M. Falcao, J. A. Dias, A. C. Miranda, C. N. Leitao, M. M. Lacerda, and L. Cayolla Da Motta, “Red wine consumption and gastric cancer in Portugal: a case-control study,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 1994,vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 269–276.

15)     J. M. Matés and F. M. Sánchez-Jiménez, “Role of reactive oxygen species in apoptosis: implications for cancer therapy,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 2000, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 157–170.


16)     Kim HP, Mani I, Iversen L, Ziboh VA. Effects of naturally-occurring flavonoids and bioflavonoids on epidermal cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase from guinea-pigs. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998; 58:17–24.


17)     Landolfi R, Mower RL, Steiner M. Modification of platelet function and arachidonic acid metabolism by bioflavonoids. Structure-activity relations. Biochem Pharmacol 1984; 33:1525–30.


18)     Laughton MJ, Evans PJ, Moroney MA, Hoult JR, Halliwell B. Inhibition of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase by flavonoids and phenolic dietary additives. Relationship to antioxidant activity and to iron ion-reducing ability. Biochem Pharmacol 1991; 42:1673–81.


19)     Leifert WR and Abeywardena MY. Cardioprotective actions of grape polyphenols. Nutr Res. 2008. 28(11):729-737.


20)     Leon boyd dept of food science,NC state university

21)     Lin JK & Tsai SH. Chemoprevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease by resveratrol. Proc Natl Sci Counc ROC(B) 1999;23(3):99-106.


22)     Lou FQ, Zhang MF, Zhang XG, Liu JM, Yuan WL. A study on teapigment in prevention of atherosclerosis. Chin Med J (Engl) 1989;102:579–83.

23)     M. G. L. Hertog, D. Kromhout, C. Aravanis et al., “Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the Seven Countries Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, 1995vol. 155, no. 4, pp. 381–386.

24)     Mennen LI, Sapinho D, De Bree A, Arnault N, Bertrais S, Galan P, Hercberg S. Consumption of foods rich in flavonoids is related to a decreased cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy French women. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):923-6.

25)     Mullen W, Marks SC, and Crozier A. Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks. J Agric Food Chem. 2007. 55(8):3148–3157.

26)     Munoz-Espada AC, Wood KV, Bordelon B, Watkins BA. Anthocyanin quantification and radical scavenging capacity of Concord, Norton, and Marechal Foch grapes and wines. J Agric Food Chem. 2004. 52(22):6779-6786

27)     N. P. Seeram, L. S. Adams, S. M. Henning et al., “in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, , 2005,vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 360–367.

28)     O’Byrne DJ, Devaraj S, Grundy SM, Jialal I. Comparison of the antioxidant effects of Concord grape juice flavonoids alpha-tocopherol on markers of oxidative stress in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002. 76(6):1367-1374.

29)     Park YK, Kim JS and Kang MH. Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial. Biofactors. 2004. 22(1-4):145-147


30)     Poliana D. Gurak Quality evaluation of grape juice concentrated by reverse osmosis, Journal of Food Engineering 96 (2010) 421–426

31)     Q. Sun, R. Prasad, E. Rosenthal, and S. K. Katiyar, “Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasive potential of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting EGFR expression and  epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, vol. 11, article 134.


32)     R. F. Frayne, “Direct analysis of the major organic components in grape must and wine using high performance liquid chromatography,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture,1986 vol. 37, pp. 281–287.


33)     Rizzon, L.A., Miele, A., 1995. Características analíticas de sucos de uva elaborados noRio Grande do Sul. Boletim Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 29, 129–133.


34)     Robak J, Gryglewski RJ. Bioactivity of flavonoids. Pol J Pharmacol 1996;48:555–64.

35)     S. Hogan, C. Canning, S. Sun, X. Sun, and K. Zhou, “Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010 vol. 58, no. 21, pp. 11250–11256.


36)     Scalbert A, Manach C, Morand C, Rémésy C and Jiménez L. Dietary Polyphenols and the Prevention of Diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005. 45(4):287-306.

37)     Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Liu S, Buring JE. Flavonoid intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1400-8.

38)     Shanmuganayagam D, Warner TF, Krueger CG, Reed JD and Folts JD. Concord grape juice attenuates platelet aggregation, serum cholesterol and development of atheroma in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Atherosclerosis. 2007.190(1):135-142.

39)     Shukitt-Hale B, Carey A, Simon L, Mark DA, Joseph JA. Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging. Nutrition 2006;22:295-302.

40)     Stein JH, Keevil JG, Wiebe DA, Aeschlimann S and Folts JD. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1999. 100(10):1050-1055


41)     Van Wauwe J, Goossens J. Effects of antioxidants on cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities in intact human platelets: comparison with indomethacin and ETYA. Prostaglandins 1983;26:725–30

42)     Wang Y, Catana F, Yang Y, Roderick R, van Breemen RB. An LC-MS method for analyzing total resveratrol in grape juice, cranberry juice, and in wine. J Agric Food Chem. 2002. 50(3):431-435.

43)     Woods RK, Walters EH, Raven JM, Wolfe R, Ireland PD, Thien FC, Abramson MJ. Food and nutrient intakes and asthma risk in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3):414-21.

44)     Wattenberg, L.W. (1993) Prevention—therapy—basic science and the resolution of the cancer problem. Cancer Res., 53:5890-5896.


45)     Yoshimoto T, Furukawa M,Yamamoto S, Horie T,Watanabe-Kohno S.Flavonoids: potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1983;116:612–8.


46)     Y. Xie, Q.W., Kashiwabare and Nathan, C. (1994) Role of transcriptionfactor NFkB/Rel in induction of nitric oxide synthase. J. Biol. Chem.,269:4705-4708


How to cite this article

Sara Janitha and K.Singaravadivel (2015): Nutrition Profile on Grape Juice – A Review. In International Journal of Agricultural and Life sciences 1 (4), pp. 1–6. Available online at DOI 10.9379-sfjal-122058-001-0081-x.



“The authors declare no conflict of interest”.


© 2015 by the authors; licensee SKY FOX Publishing Group, Tamilnadu, India. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (