Review on Microbial remediation of Heavy metals from E-waste
1*&1 Research scholar, Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur- 613010
2Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental and Herbal Science, Tamil University, Thanjavur- 613010
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed/E-Mail: email@example.com
Received: Mar 2017 / Accepted: Mar 2017/ Published: Mar 2017
ABSTRACT: E-waste is an end of the life span of electric or electronic appliances which contain the complex heavy metals. It is causing severe health concerns for millions of people around the world, mostly in the developing nations of India, Africa, Europe, etc. More of these wastes are ending up in dumping yards and recycling centers, cause a new challenge to the environment. In general electronic gadgets are intended to make our lives happier and simpler, but their toxicity, removal and recycling becomes a health horrendous. Many research papers have been reported on microbial remediation of heavy metals present in E-waste. The pioneer work was reported on 1998, bio-dissolution of spent nickel batteries using Thiobacillus ferroxidans, which is the first step to recycle and discarded batteries by using microbes as eco-friendly method. This review paper provides an insight in to the bioremediation of heavy metals from E-waste by potential microorganisms, in an eco-friendly way and provide pathway for current researchers.
Keywords: E-waste, Bio remediation, Heavy metals and minerals.
The revolution brought by information and communication in twentieth century brought enormous changes in the way we organize our lives, our economies, industries and institutions (Devendra S Verma, 2014). In most of the developing and under-developed countries, e-waste is dumped directly into the soil without any treatment; often due to weak environmental regulations and financial problems. For profitable recovery of materials and sustainable environment, the efficient recycling of electronic waste is very necessary, and is still regarded as a major challenge for today’s society (Shubham Gupta, 2014).
According to Centre of Science and Environment’s latest reports, every year our country is producing 3, 50,000 tonnes of e-waste, 5,0000 tonnes of electronic waste is imported but only 19000 tonnes is rejected. Out of total e-waste 10 states contribute about 70% of e-waste, leading states are- Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh. E-waste is highly complex to handle due to its composition. It is made up of multiple components some of which contain toxic substances that have an adverse impact on human health and environment if not handled properly and mixed with municipal waste.
Electronic wastes can cause widespread environmental damage due to the use of toxic materials in the manufacture of electronic goods (Mehra, 2004). Hazardous materials in one form or the other are present in such wastes primarily consisting of electronic equipment. Even though it is hardly known, E-waste contains toxic substances such as Lead and Cadmium in circuit boards, lead oxide and Cadmium in monitor Cathode Ray Tubes , cables and polyvinyl chloride cable insulation that releases highly toxic dioxins and furans when burned to recover Copper from the wires.
All electronic equipment contains printed circuit boards which are dangerous because of their content of lead. The microorganisms for remediation of complex or co-contaminated system, they must possess tolerance and detoxification abilities towards different types of pollutants. These properties help them prolong and bioremediation in complex and mixed polluted systems like e-waste.
Microbes possessing such novel properties can be either isolated from natural contaminated sources (soil contaminated with e-waste or leachate from e-waste landfill sites), or obtained through engineering processes. Such microbes, individually or as consortia, can be used for decontamination of e-waste. Certain microorganisms with their unique tolerance mechanisms are able to grow and degrade or transform toxicants into nontoxic forms. (Amrik Bhattacharya, 2016).
Categories of E-waste
It can be categories on the basis of hazardous and non- hazardous waste and more than one thousands e- waste comes under this category (Wath et al., 2010). According to the European Union electrical and electronic equipment available on the market have divided e-waste types into ten categories such as Large household Appliances, Small household appliances, IT and telecommunications ,Equipment, Consumer equipment, Light equipment, Electrical and electronic tools, Toys, leisure, and sports, Equipment, Medical devices, Monitoring and control Instruments, Automatic dispensers.
Techniques used to handle E-waste
There are basically four ways in which e-waste has been treated till date. But none has been found to be fully satisfactory. The first and most common one has been storing e-wastes in landfills, but it is replete with all the dangers of leaching. The hazardous effects are worse in the older or less stringently maintained landfills or dumpsites. The second method commonly used has been to incinerate or burn the goods, but this process releases heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury into the atmosphere. The third and the fourth methods are reusing and recycling of E-wastes. They have been preferable because they increase the lifespan of the products and therefore imply less waste over time. These are the four different and common method used to handle the waste all over the world. Each method has its own drawbacks and limitations. (Bikashdev Chhura, et al., 2015). To facilitate take the edge off e-waste problems, there are investigations in term of the quantity, character and potential environmental and human health impacts of e-waste and broad research into e-waste management.
Microbial Remediation of Heavy metals present in E-waste
|S.No||Metals||Source of Metals Studied||Microorganism||Bioremediation Process/Methods||Reference|
|1.||Cu||Cu- rich e-waste||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidansAspergillus niger||Bioleaching||Saidan and M.Valix, 2006|
|2.||Cu||Waste Printed circuit board (PCB)||Bacterial consortium enriched from natural acid mine drainge||Bioleachning||Yun Xiang, et al., 2010|
|3.||Au, Ag||PCB||–||Manual||Chatterjee, et al., 2009|
|4.||Cr, Pb, Cu||Solid & Liquid Waste||Staphylococcus saprophyticus,||Biosorption||Ashok kumar, et al., 2011|
|5.||Ni||PCB||mesophilic chemolititrophic bacterial culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans||Bioleaching||Anna Mrazikova, 2014|
|6.||Au||E waste||Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Escherichia coli.||Bioleaching||Chang jin Liang, et al.,2011|
|7.||Cu, Al, Zn||PCB||Mixed culcture of Acidophilic Bacteria||Bioleachning||Nengwu Zhu, et al., 2011|
|8.||Cu, Ni, Al, Zn||
|Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans||Bioleaching||Willner, et al.,2013 andKavitha, 2014.|
|9.||Cu, Ni, Al, Zn||Electronic scrap||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans||Bioleaching||Brandl, et al.,2001|
|10.||Cu, Ni, Sn, Pb, Zn, Al||Electronic scrap||Aspergillus nigerPenicillium simplicissimum||Bioleaching||Brandl, et al.,2001|
|11.||Cu||PCB||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Bioleaching||Tao yang, et al.,2009|
|12.||Cu||Printed wire boards||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidansA. ferroxidans + A. thiooxidans||Bioleaching||Jingwei wang et al., 2009|
|13.||Ni, Cu, Al, Zn, Pb, Sn||Electronic scrap||Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans||Bioleaching||Ilyas, et al.,2007|
|14.||Cu, Al, Zn, Ni||Electronic scrap||Thermosulfidooxidans sulfobacillus + Thermoplasma acidophilum||Column Bioleaching||Ilyas, et al.,2010|
|15.||Au||Printed electronic circuits||Chromobacterium violaceum||Bioleaching||Faramarzi, et al2004|
|16.||Li, Co||Lithium batteries||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Bioleaching||Joanna willner, 2013|
|17.||Li, Co||Lithium batteries||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Bacterial leaching||Debaraj Mishra, et al., 2008|
|18.||Ag, Au, Pt||Jewellery waste, automobile catalytic converter, electronic scrap||Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida||Biomobilization||Brandl, et al.,2008|
|19.||Ni,Co, Cr &Mn||Ores||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Biomining||Barrie Johnson, et al., 2013|
|20.||Zn, Ni, Pb||PCB||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Bioleaching||Joanna willner, 2012|
|21.||Ni, Cd||Spent Ni – Cd batteries:||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Bioleaching||O.Velgosova, , et al., 2012 and O.Velgosova, et al., 2014|
|22.||Cu, Au, Zn, Fe||E waste||Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonasfluorescens||Bioleaching||Jatindra Kumar Pradhan, et al., 2012|
|23.||Au, Cu, Ni||Cellular phone PCBsand Computer gold finger motherboards||Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7,||Bioleaching||Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias, et al., 2014|
|24.||Cu, Zn, Ni||PCB||Acidiphilium acidophilum||Bioleaching||Rivero Hudec, et al., 2009|
|25.||Cu, Cd, Pb||Electroplating industrialeffluent samples||Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. Micrococcus sp.||Biosorption||Johncy Rani, et al., 2010|
|26.||Ni, Au, Cu||Nickel powder, PCB scrap||C. violaceum, P. fluorescens, B. megaterium||Microbial mobilization||Mohammad Faramarzia, et al., 2004|
|27.||Pb, As, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Mn||Mine Waste Disposal Sites||Sulfobacillus sp.Sulfidobacillus sp.Acetobacter acidophilumAlcaligenes entrophusPseudomonas putida||Biosorption||Petrisor, et al.,2002|
|28.||Cd||E waste||Pseudomonas aeruginosa JN102340||Biosorption||Kumar, 2014|
|29.||Pb||E waste||Aspergillus fumigatus||Biosorption||Rajesh kumar Ramasamy, et al., 2011|
|30.||Cd||E waste||Aspergillus sp.||Biosorption||Ramasamy Rajesh Kumar, et al., 2012|
|31.||Mn||E waste||Helminthosporium solani||Biosorption||Savitha, et al.,2010|
|32.||Ni , Cd||Bio-dissolution of spent Nickel-Cadmium batteries||At. ferrooxidans||Bioleaching||Cerruti, et al.,1998|
|33.||Ni , Cd||Spent Nickel-Cadmium batteries||Indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli||Bioleaching||Zhu et al , 2003|
|34.||Ni , Cd||Spent Ni-Cd battery||At. ferrooxidans, & At. thiooxidans||Bioleaching||O. Velgosova, et al., 2010|
|35.||Cu||PCB of waste Computer||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans||Bioleaching||Choi, et al., 2004|
|36.||Cu, Pb, Zn||Printed wire boards||Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans,+ Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans||Bioleaching||Wang, et al.,2009|
|37.||Cu, Ni, Zn||PCB||Acidithiobacillus thiooxidansAcidithiobacillus ferrooxidans||Bioleaching||Liang, et al.,2010|
|38.||Ag||Waste photographic films||Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633||Enzymatic Method||Nakiboglu, et al., 2001|
|39.||Ag||Waste X-ray film||Conidioboluscoronatus||Enzymatic Method||Shankar, et al.,2010|
|40.||Ag||X-ray films||Bacillus sphaericus||Enzymatic Method||Singh, et al.,1999|
|41.||Ag||Lith Film||Bacillus sp. B21–2||Enzymatic Method||Masui, et al.,2004|
|42.||Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, and Zn||Dumping municipal soil area||Pseudomonas spp.Bacillus spp||Resistance||Ersoy Sevgi, et al., 2009|
|43.||Cd||Contaminated site||Pseudomonas aeruginosa S22||Resistance||El-Sayed, et al.,2008|
|44.||Uranium||Mine waste||Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Biosorption||Michael Z. and Hu,et al.,1996|
|45.||Hg, Pb, Ag, ZN, Cu,||Industry waste||Bacillus species||Bioaccumulation||Meghraj Hookoom, et al.,2013|
|46.||Ar, Pb, Cd||E waste||A.Thioxidans, Micrococcus roseus, T. ferrooxidans, Aspergillus fumigates, A. niger||Bioleaching||Stephen , Macnaughtont, 1999,and Shuchi Patel et al., 2014|
|47.||Cr, Ur, Cd, Pb||Industrial waste||Bacillus sphaericus, Myxococcus Xanthus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, StreptoverticilliumCinnamoneum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae||Biosorption||Hu, et al., 1996, Atkinson, et al.,1998; Ahalya et al., 2003 and Shuchi Patel etal, 2014|
|48.||Cr, Ur, Pb||Heavy metal presenting waste||Bacillus circulans ,Bacillus megaterium,Deinococcus radiodurans ,Micrococcus luteus,Aspergillus niger,Monodictys pelagic
|Bioaccumulation||Demirba , 2001; Srinath, et al., 2002, Malik, 2004; Juwarkar, Yadav, 2010 and Shuchi Patel, et al., 2014|
|49.||Ur, Cr, Cd||Heavy metal presenting waste||Anaeromyxobacter sp. Clostridium sphenoidesHalomonas sp.Serratia sp.Fusarium oxysporumRhizopus oryzae||Biotransformation||Lovley and Coates, 1997; Francis, 1998; Malik, 2004 and Shuchi Patel, et al., 2014|
|50.||Cu||Electronic Waste||Acidithiobacillus bacteria||Bioleaching||Saidan, et al.,2012|
|51.||Au||Cellular phone Printed circuit board||A. niger MXPE6 and A. niger MX7||Bioleaching||Madrigal-Arias, 2015|
|52.||Cu||Printed circuit board||S. thermosulfidooxidans||Bioleaching||Rodrigues, et al., 2015|
|53.||Ni, Cu, Al, Zn||Electronic scrap||S. thermosulfidooxidansand acidophilic heterotrophy (code A1TSB)||Bio solubilization||Tang, et al.,2016|
|54.||Pb||E waste landfill||Bacillus licheniformis||Biosorption||Gayatri, et al.,2017|
Ar-Arsenic,Pb- Lead, Cd-Cadmium,Cr- Chromium, U-Uranium, Ni- Nickel, Cu-Copper, Al-Alumnium, Zn-Znic, Sn-, Co-cobalt, Mn-Manganese, Ag-Silver, Fe-Ferrous, Pt-Platinum, Li-Lithium, Au- Gold
E-Waste containing toxic metals which need to be remediated efficiently from contaminated surroundings. To reduce the toxic metals effect on environment and living beings. Biological methods one of the potential methods to minimize the toxicity associated with e-waste contaminants in sustainable way. So we need to spread the awareness of proper handling of E-waste such as reduce, reuse and safe recycle process.
1. Ahalya, N., T. V. Ramachandra R. D. Kanamadi. 2003. Biosorption of heavy metals. Res. J. Chem. Environ, 7(4), 71-79.
2. Amrik Bhattacharya, S. K. Khare, 2016. Sustainable options for mitigation of major toxicants originating from electronic waste, Current Science, 111(12):1946-1954.
3. Anna Mrazikova, Renata Marcincakova, Jana Kadukova, Oksana Velgosova. 2014. Nickel recovery from printed circuit boards using acidophilic bacteria, Journal of the Polish Mineral Engineering Society, 51-54.
4. Ashok Kumar, B.S. Bisht, V.D. Joshi. 2011. Bioremediation potential of three acclimated bacteria with reference to heavy metal removal from waste, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(2): 896-908.
5. Atkinson, B. W., F.Bux, and H. C. Kasan, 1998. Considerations for application of biosorption technology to remediate metal-contaminated industrial effluents, Water S. A, 24(2): 129-135.
6. Barrie Johnson, D., Barry M. Grail, Kevin B. Hallberg. 2013. A new direction for biomining: extraction of metals by reductive dissolution of oxidized ores, Minerals, 3: 49-58.
7. Bikashdev Chhura, Gurjeet Kaur and Manoj Makhija, 2015. E –waste: A new challenge and approach for India: An Overview, Protagonist International journal of management and technology, 2(2), Online ISSN- 2394-3742.
8. Brandl, H, R .Bosshard, M .Wegmann. 2001. Computer-munching microbes: metal leaching from electronic scrap by bacteria and fungi, Hydrometallurgy, 59: 319-326.
9. Brandl, H., S. Lehmann, M.A. Faramarzi, D. Martinelli. 2008. Biomobilization of silver, gold and platinum from solid waste materials by HCN-forming microorganisms, Hydrometallurgy, 94 (1-4): 14.
10. Cerruti, C., G. Curutchet, E. Donati. 1998. Bio-dissolution of spent nickel-cadmium batteries using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Journal of Biotechnology, 62: 209-219.
11. Changjin Liang, Jingying Li, Chuanjing Ma. 2014. Review on cyanogenic bacteria for gold recovery from E- Waste, Advanced Materials Research, 878: 355-367.
12. Chatterjee, S., Krishna Kumar. 2009. Effective electronic waste management and recycling process involving formal and non-formal sectors, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 4(13):893-905.
13. Choi, M., K. Cho, D.S. Kim, D.J. Kim. 2004. Microbial recovery of copper from printed circuit boards of waste computer by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 39: 2973-2982.
14. Debaraj Mishra, Dong-Jin Kim, D.E. Ralph, Jong-Gwan Ahn and Young-Ha Rhee. 2008. Bioleaching of metals from spent lithium ion secondary batteries using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Waste Management, 28: 333-338.
15. Demirba, A. 2001. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by mushrooms from artificially fortified soils, Food Chemistry, 74(3): 293-301.
16. Devendra S Verma and Shekhar Agrawal, 2014. E-waste management in India: Problems and Legislations, International Journal of Science Engineering and Technology Research, 3(7):
17. El-Sayed, M. Soltan, Rehab, M. Mohamed and Ahmed, A. Shoreit. 2008. Behavioral response of resistant and sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa S22 isolated from Sohag Governorate, Egypt to cadmium stress, African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (14): 2375-2385.
18. Ersoy Sevgi, Gokhan Coral, A. Murat Gizir and M. Kemal Sangun, 2010. Investigation of heavy metal resistance in some bacterial strains isolated from industrial soils, Turk J Biol, 34: 423-431.
19. Faramarzi, M.A., M. Stagars, E. Pensini, W. Krebs and H. Brandl. 2004. Metal solubilization from metal containing solid materials by cyanogenic Chromobacterium violaceum, Journal of Biotechnology, 113 (1, 2): 321.
20. Faramarzi, M.A., M. Stagars, E. Pensini, W. Krebs and H. Brandl. 2004. Metal solubilization from metal-containing solid materials by cyanogenic Chromobacterium violaceum, Journal of Biotechnology, 113: 321-326.
21. Francis, A. J. 1998. Biotransformation of uranium and other actinides in radioactive wastes, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 27: 78-84.
22. Gayatri, Y., Shailaja Raj M, Vijayalakshmi, 2017. Biosorption of lead by Bacillus licheniformis isolated from E-waste landfill, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. International Journal of Bioassays 6(2): 5240-5244.
23. Ilyas, S., C. H. Ruan, H.N. Bhatti, M.A. Ghauri and M.A.Anwar. 2010. Column bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap, Hydrometallurgy, 101 (3, 4): 135.
24. Ilyas, S., M.A. Anwar, S.B. Niazi and M.A. Ghauri. 2007. Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap by moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria, Hydrometallurgy, 88 (1-4): 180.
25. Jatindra Kumar Pradhan , Sudhir Kumar. 2012. Metals bioleaching from electronic waste by Chromobacterium violaceumand Pseudomonads sp, Waste Management & Research, 30(11): 1151–1159.
26. Jingwei Wang, Jianfeng Bai, Jinqiu Xu and Bo Liang. 2009. Bioleaching of metals from printed wire boards byAcidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus Thiooxidans and their mixture, Journal of Hazard. Mater, 172 (2, 3): 1100.
27. Joanna Willner, Agnieszka Fornalczyk. 2013. Extraction of metal from electronic waste by bacterial leaching, Environment Protection Engineering, 39: 197-208.
28. Joanna Willner. 2012. Leaching of selected heavy metals from electronic waste in the presence of the At. ferrooxidansbacteria, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering ,55(2):860-863.
29. Johncy Rani, M., B. Hemambika, J. Hemapriya and V. Rajesh Kannan. 2010. Comparative assessment of heavy metal removal by immobilized and dead bacterial cells: A biosorption approach, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(2): 077-083.
30. Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias, Rosalba Argumedo-Delira, Alejandro Alarcon, Ma. Remedios Mendoza-Lopez, Oscar Garcia-Barradas, Jesus Samuel Cruz-Sanchez, Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato and Maribel Jimenez-Fernandez. 2015. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer gold finger motherboards by two Aspergillus niger strains, Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 46 (3): 707-713.
31. Juwarkar, A. A., and S. K. Yadav. 2010. Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Heavy Metals in Bioremediation Technology, Springer.
32. Kavitha, A. V.2014. Extraction of Precious Metals from E-Waste, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3 147-149.
33. Kumar, R.R. 2014. Isolation, Molecular identification of metal tolerant bacteria and its heavy metal removal capacity, International Journal of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
34. Liang, G., Y. Mo, Q. Zhou. 2010. Novel strategies of bioleaching metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs) in mixed cultivation of two acidophiles, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 47: 322-326.
35. Lovley, D. R., and J. D. Coates. 1997. Bioremediation of metal contamination, Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 8(3): 285-289.
36. Madrigal-Arias, J. E. et al., 2015. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus niger strains. Br. J. Microbiol, 46(3): 707-713.
37. Malik. A. 2004. Metal bioremediation through growing cells, Environment International, 30(2): 261-278.
38. Masui, A., M. Yasuda, N. Fujiwara and H. Ishikawa. 2004. Enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatin layer on used lith film using thermo-stable alkaline protease for the recovery of silver and PET film, Biotechnology Progress, 20: 1267-1269.
39. Meghraj Hookoom and Daneshwar Puchooa. 2013. Isolation and Identification of Heavy Metals Tolerant Bacteria from Industrial and Agricultural Areas in Mauritius, Current Research in Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1(3): 119-123.
40. Mehra H.C., 2004. PC waste leaves toxic taste, The Tribune, 22nd March.
41. Michael Z.-C. Hu, John M. Norman, Brendlyn D. Faison and Mark E. Reeves. 1996. Biosorption of uranium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CSU: Characterization and comparison studies, J. of Biotechnology and Bioenginering, 51 (2): 237-247.
42. Nakiboglu, N., D. Toscali, I. Yasa. 2001. Silver recovery from waste photographic films by an enzymatic method, Turkish Journal of Chemistry 25: 349-353.
43. Nengwu Zhu, Yun Xiang, Ting Zhang, Pingxiao Wu, Zhi Dang, Ping Li and Jinhua Wu. 2011. Bioleaching of metal concentrates of waste printed circuit boards by mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192: 614-619.
44. Oksana Velgosova, Jana Kadukova, Renata Marcincakova. 2012. Study of ni and cd bioleaching from spent ni-cd batteries, Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica, 11-2:117-123.
45. Petrisor, I.G., K. Komnitsas, I. Lazar, A. Voicu, S. Dobrota and M. Stefanescu. 2002. Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Leachates Generated at Mine Waste Disposal Sites, The European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, 2(3): 1303-0868, 158-167.
46. Rajesh kumar Ramasamy, Shankar Congeevaram and Kaliannan Thamaraiselvi, 2014. Evaluation of isolated fungal strain from e-waste recycling facility for effective sorption of toxic heavy metal pb (ii) ions and fungal protein molecular characterization- a mycoremediation approach, Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci, 2(2): 342-347.
47. Ramasamy, Rajesh Kumara, Jae Taek Leeb and Jae Young Chob. 2012. Toxic cadmium ions removal by isolated fungal strain from e-waste recycling facility, Journal of Environmental and Applied Bioresearch, 1(1): 1-4.
48. Rivero Hudec, M. A., M. Sodhi, D. Goglia-Arora. 2009. Biorecovery of metals from electronic waste, 7th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology.
49. .Rodrigues, M. L. M., Leao, V. A., Gomes, O., Lambert, F., Bastin, D. and Gaydardzhiev, S., 2015. Copper extraction from coarsely ground printed circuit boards using moderate thermophilic bacteria in a rotating-drum reactor. Waste Manage, 41, 148-158.
50. Saidan, M., M. Valix, 2011. Bioleaching of copper from electronic waste using Aspergillus niger and Acidithiobacillus,Conference Paper, Chemeca 2011: Engineering a Better World: 1779-1788.
51. Saidan, M., B. Brown and M. Valix. 2012. Leaching of Electronic Waste Using Biometabolised Acids, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 20(3): 530-534.
52. Savitha, J., N. Sahana, V.K. Praveen. 2010. Metal biosorption by Helminthosporium solani- a simple microbiological technique to remove metal from e-waste, Current Science, 98 (7); 903-904.
53. Shankar, S., S.V. More, R. Laxman. 2010. Recovery of silver from waste x-ray film by alkaline protease from conidiobolus coronatus, Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 6: 60-69.
54. Shubham Gupta, Gaurav Modi, Rahul Saini and VijayaAgarwala, 2014. A review on various electronic waste recycling techniques and hazards due to its improper handling, International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science, 3(5):05-17.
55. Shuchi Patel , Avani Kasture. 2014. E (Electronic) Waste Management using Biological systems-overview, Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci, (3(7):495-504.
56. Singh, J., R.M. Vohra, D.K. Sahoo. 1999. Alkaline protease from a new obligate alkalophilic isolate of Bacillus sphaericus, Biotechnology Letter, 21: 921-924.
57. Srinath, T., T.Verma, P.W. Ramteke, and S. K. Garg. 2002. Chromium (VI) biosorption and bioaccumulation by chromate resistant bacteria, Chemosphere, 48(4): 427-435.
58. Stephen, J. R., S. J. Macnaughtont. 1999. Developments in terrestrial bacterial remediation of metals, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 10(3): 230-233.
59. Tang, S., H. Yin, S. Zhou, S. Chen, H. Peng, Z. Liu and Z. Dang. 2016. Simultaneous Cr (VI) removal and 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) biodegradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in liquid medium. Chemosphere, 150, 24-32.7
60. Tao Yang, Zheng Xu, Jiankang Wen and Limei Yang. 2009. Factors influencing bioleaching copper from waste printed circuit boards by Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans, Hydrometallurgy, 97 (1, 2): 29.
61. Velgosova O, J.Kadukova, R. Marcincakova, A. Mrazikova, and L. Frohlich. 2014. The role of main leaching agents responsible for ni bioleaching from spent ni-cd batteries, Separation Science and Technology, 49(3): 438-444.
62. Velgosova, O., J. Kadukova, A. Mrazikova, A. Blaskova, M. Petoczova, H. Harvathova and M. Stofko. 2010. Influence of selected parameters on nickel bioleaching from spent nickel-cadmium batteries, Mineralia Slovaca, 42: 365-368.
63. Wang, J., J. Bai, J. Xu, and B. Liang. 2009. Bioleaching of metals from printed wire boards by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and their mixture, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172: 1100-1105.
64. Wath, Sushant B., Vaidya, Atul N., P.S. Dutt, Chakrabarti, Tapan, (2010). E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 172: 249–262.
65. Yun Xiang, Pingxiao Wu, Nengwu Zhu, Ting Zhang, Wen Liu, Jinhua Wu, and Ping Li. 2010. Bioleaching of copper from waste printed circuit boards by bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184: 812–818.
66. Zhu, N., L. Zhang, C. Li and C. Cai. 2003. Recycling of spent nickel-cadmium batteries based on bioleaching process, Waste Management, 23: 703-708.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
“The authors declare no conflict of interest”.
© 2017 by the authors; licensee SKY FOX Publishing Group, Tamilnadu, India. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).