• Solvent Extraction and Chemical Characterization of Papaya Seeds Oil
    Vol 4 No 4 (2018)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE                                           

     Solvent Extraction and Chemical Characterization of Papaya Seeds Oil

     Jiveri B1*, Muoki A2 and Kwanyi M1

     Department of Botany, Maseno University. P.O BOX 333-40105 Maseno, Kenya.

    1. Department of Institutional Management, Siaya institute of Technology, P.O BOX 1087-40600, Siaya, Kenya

    *Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: jkhajezo@gmail.com

    Year : 2018 , Volume : 4 , Issue : 4

    Received: Nov 2018 / Accepted:  Nov 2018/ Published: Dec 2018

    ABSTRACT: Papaya (carica papaya L.) is a plant that grows wild in many parts of the tropics. The seeds of papaya fruits are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of papaya, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. A compound present in crushed papaya seeds is believed to have activity against helminthes intestinal parasites, benzyl isothiocynate has shown to have an effect on vascular contraction using a canine carotid artery in vitro model. The characteristic of seed oil was studied. Percent seed oil was recorded 30.1 and chemical composition of papaya seed was found to be protein (28.1%), Ash (8.2%), Crude fiber (19.1%) and total carbohydrate (25.6%). Papaya seed oil utilized in high amounts could lead to reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In addition, high oleic oil has sufficient stability to be used in demanding applications such as frying, bakery, crackers, cereal dried fruit, and spray oil for snacks. Papaya seed oil can be considered as high oleic and hence viewed as a healthy alternative to many other vegetable oils. Thus, it can be concluded that the seed can be utilized for extraction of oil which has various health benefits with respect to essential fatty acids. Mass production of the Oil will accelerate industrialization while promoting sustainable economic growth hence enhancing improved health and livelihood which is in line with the tenets of vision 2030 and the health-related Sustainable Development Goal.

    Keywords: Carica papaya, intestinal parasites, seed oil

    DOI : https://doi.org/10.22573/spg.ijals.018.s12200092     Cross Mark journalsCross Mark journalsCross Mark journalsCross Mark journalsCross Mark journalsCross Mark journals    
  • A Study on the Shelf life of the Spent Hen Meat Puffed Product (SHPP) Stored at Ambient Temperature
    Vol 4 No 3 (2018)
    Research Article

     Sarvadnya RG1*, Kokane RD2, Dange A2, Gadekar YP3, Girish PS4


     DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.22573/spg.ijals.018.s12200091


    Hot extruded spent hen meat puffed products (SHPP) are made of spent hen meat mixed with flours and additives subjected to a maturing and extrusion process. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hygienic quality, the organoleptic characteristics, physico-chemical, proximate and microbial status during shelf life of SHPP in ambient temperature. Growth models, developed and validated on hot extruded spent hen meat puffed products (SHPP) were used to predict the growth of microorganisms. Temperature data were obtained from retail and home refrigerators. Shelf life was greatly influenced by storage temperature, but initial microbial load had a smaller effect. The expiration date of hot extruded spent hen meat puffed products must be based only on the growth of the spoilage microorganisms. Only when product contamination with bacteria cell concentrations is high, the product fraction poses health risks for consumers. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that storage temperature and temperature variability were the most important factors for the duration of shelf life.


    Hot extrusion, Puffed meat product, Bacterial spoilage, Spoilage indicator, Shelf life

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  • Anti-microbial Perspective of a Chalcone, (E)-1-(1- methoxy-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-3-(4-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one: Fabrication of a Hybrid by Unification of a Natural Product with a Synthetic Component
    Vol 4 No 2 (2018)

     Debarshi Kar Mahapatra 1*, Ruchi S. Shivhare 2

    To link to this article                 : https://doi.org/10.22573/spg.ijals.018.s12200090

    ABSTRACT:  Murraya koenigii L. has been explored exhaustively and is known to possess more than 20 different carbazole-based alkaloids having multifarious therapeutic perception of this class of alkaloids, murrayanine is the highest explored alkaloid and is known to have (ethno)-pharmacological perspectives of purgative,  stringent, febrifuge, anti-helminthic, anti-oxidant, anti-ulcerogenic, immunomodulation, etc. As murrayanine possess multiple sites for substituting wide-range of electron-donating / -withdrawing groups by semi-synthetic approach, in the present research, a chalcone; (E)-1-(1-methoxy-9Hcarbazol- 3-yl)-3-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was fabricated rationally by incorporating a natural portion  (murrayanine) in the A-ring and a synthetic component (4-methylsulfonyl group) in the B-ring and screened against two bacterial species (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and two fungal species (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). The rationally designed chalcone demonstrated noteworthy anti-microbial activity. The fabricated chalcone was observed to be a better anti-bacterial agent as compared to its anti-fungal potentials. As compared to the standard drugs, the experimental molecule does hold well against pathogenic challenges. The present research therefore opened new avenues of judiciously developing a natural scaffold having an active methylsulfonyl group, which will inspire life science researchers across the globe in developing inhibitors with pronounced biological activity as compared with the parent compounds.
    Keywords: Murraya koenigii, murrayanine, chalcone, methylsulfonyl, antimicrobial, antibacterial

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  • Green Tobacco Prevalence of Green Tobacco Sickness in Tobacco Production Areas in the Black Sea Region
    Vol 4 No 1 (2018)


    Ahmet Kinay 1*, Dursun Kurt 2, Sıdıka Ekren 3 and H. Vakıf Mercimek 4

     To link to this article : https://doi.org/10.22573/spg.ijals.018.s12200087

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of green tobacco sickness in tobacco producers living in the Black Sea Region and their level of knowledge of green tobacco sickness. Simple random sampling was employed, and the results of the surveys that had been conducted face-to-face with tobacco producers were gathered and analyzed. As a result, green tobacco sickness was not encountered among tobacco producers living in the Black Sea Region, and it was understood that they did not have knowledge of the sickness. The main reasons why there is no evidence of the sickness are growing tobacco with low nicotine content and common usage of protective equipment during and after harvest. In order to overcome lack of information, occupational health and safety training should be provided. In addition, it is required to make agricultural mechanization widespread in tobacco growing. Thus, precautions shall have been taken against probable occurrence of the sickness. Making this study in other tobacco production regions of Turkey would be beneficial.

    Keywords: Green tobacco sickness, oriental, Nicotiana tabacum L., nicotine, prevalence


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  • Sous-Vide Evaluation of Sous-Vide Technology in Gastronomy
    Vol 4 No 1 (2018)


    Seydi Yıkmış 1,2*, Harun Aksu 3, Başak Gökçe Çöl and İ. Levent Demirçakmak 5

    To link to this article   : https://doi.org/10.22573/spg.ijals.018.s12200088


    ABSTRACT: Sous vide is cooked under control by applying a certain temperature (65-96 oC) / time after vacuuming in the package of the food which is formed alone or with other auxiliary products (sauce-spices) and stored under cold conditions (1-4 oC) by rapidly reducing the temperature after heat application This process is also known as lapping, vacuum cooking, vacuum packed cooking with vacuum pack or baking-cooling with vacuum packaged. In the products prepared by this technology, the blocking effect provided by oxidative and aerobic bacteria development through vacuum packaging combines with microbial protection effect provided by pasteurization; Thanks to the applied cold chain, a long and safe shelf life is provided and consumed. Food can be made reliable by pasteurizing at low temperatures, and even safely consumed without cracking and crunchy foods. In addition to all these advantages, sous vide technology also has some disadvantages. When the investigations are examined, it has been concluded that the research on sous vide technology's reliability in terms of health should be intensified.

    Keywords:  sous vide, gastronomy, food.

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  • NPC Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds in Nutrition Physiology
    Vol 4 No 1 (2018)


    Yıkmı S 1 *, Kagan N 2 , Atan R.M 3 and Alpaslan M 4

    To link to this article  :  https://doi.org/10.22573/spg.ijals.018.s12200089

    ABSTRACT: Many peptides released from animal or plant proteins in vitro or in vivo have therapeutic functions in humans beyond bioactivity and adequate nutrition. Different health effects have been attributed to foodborne peptides, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure lowering (ACE inhibitor) effects, cholesterol lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, increased mineral absorption, immunomodulatory effects and opioid activities. For this reason, nutritional counseling practices deal with these issues. Specific protein fractions with therapeutic effects on body function and health are termed biological peptides and have been shown to have a direct positive effect on health. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a carboxy-dipeptidyl metallopeptidase associated with the renin angiotensin system that regulates the production of angiotensin II from vasoconstrictor angiotensin-II and peripheral blood pressure that catalyzes the inactivation of vasodilator bradykinin. For this reason, the ACE inhibitor substance in the diet may inhibit hypertension by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. Milk proteins are now the main source of bioactive peptides. Such peptides are seen as natural and non-effective alternatives to drugs in the treatment of hypertension. The natural consumption of biological peptides will not be expected to cause side effects of synthetically produced drugs used to control hypertension. Therefore, it can be used as a powerful functional food additive and the ACE inhibitor is a natural and healthy alternative to drugs.

    Keywords:   Bioactive peptides, ACE inhibitors, Antihypertensive effect

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